THE ESCAPE & THE PLUMMIT
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION ABOUT THE JUDGEMENT, THE PARADISE AND THE HELL
OUR SCHOLARS HAVE RUINED THE MESSAGE OF THE QURAN
Unfortunately, the Quranic word أَنْهَار (Anhar) has been misused since early Islam to hide the actual message of God which He has sent in the Quran for the whole mankind. The concept of life and death, قیامۃ the Day of Judgment, accountability, life after death, اِیمان بالآخِرَۃ belief in the hereafter, جَنَّۃ Jannah (The Paradise) and جَھنّْم Jahannum (The Hell) have been changed in the interpretations of the Quran by taking the fabricated meaning of this word أَنْهَارً (anhar), which is the plural of the word نھر (Nahar) that is derived from the root letters ن۔ ھ ۔ ر (Noon-Ha-Ra). “Taj-el-Aroos” and the “Kamoos” have explained that اَنھر (Anahar) is a “Vain” or a flow of blood that would not stop, like river. The above mentioned lexicons have clearly mentioned the meaning of the word اَنھر (Anahar) to be “like river” which means the word نھر (Nahar) cannot be taken to mean a “river”. Es‐Saghdnee, author of the “Obàb” and of the “Tekmileh “fi‐s‐Sihàh” said اَنھر (Anahar) is a “Belly”. “Tal-el-Aroos” further added that significantly اَنھر (Anahar) is the “belly” that becomes loose, relax or discharge itself. “Jami’” of El‐Karmdnee: a lexicon founded upon the “’Eyn” and El‐Jowharee, author of the “Sihàh” have quoted the same as above; that اَنھر (Anahar) is the belly that became loose or relaxed or discharged itself. The “Kamoos”, “Taj-el-Aroos” and the “Sihàh” wrote, “He (a man) dug a نَھر (Nahar) or channel for a river”. “Taj-el-Aroos” further gave an explaination of نَھر (Nahar) as a noun: “He made an inroad or incursion, or inroads or incursions, into the territories of enemies, in the day time”. The “Sihàh”, the “Kamoos”, the “Mughrib” of El‐Mutarrizee and the “Misbah” of El‐Feiyoomee copied the same meaning as mentioned above. The “Mughrib” and the “Taj-el-Aroos” further explained that نَھَر (Nahar) is a wide channel or a “trench”. The “Mughrib” of El‐Mutarrizee, the “Asas” of Ez‐Zamakhsheree and “Jami’” of lexicon El‐Karmdnee further modified the meaning of the word نَھَر (Nahar) to translate the verse of the Quran
وَأَمَّا السَّائِلَ فَلَا تَنْهَر (93:10) only because they were unable to fit the meaning of the word نَھَر (Nahar) as a “river” in the above verse 93:10. So, to translate the verse 93:10 they changed their earlier statements and declared that the word نَھَر (Nahar) is also known as a vulgar word بِکلامِ غَلیِظ (bi kalam -e- Ghaliz) and they gave the following examples: “He addressed him with chiding speech”. “Jami’” of lexicon El‐Karmdnee further inserted,” Forbidding him from doing evil”. “Taj-el-Aroos” also copied them and so did Edward William Lane in his world famous Arabic lexicon. The “Sihàh”, the “Kamoos”, the “Mughrib” of El‐Mutarrizee, the “Misbah” of El‐Feiyoomee and “Taj-el-Aroos” gave further examples of the word انھر (Anhar) such as: He made blood to flow (Sihah). To appear and flow (Kamoos). To flow amply and copiously (Mughrib).To flow with force (Misbah).He poured it forth copiously (Taj-el-Aroos). The “Mughrib” of El‐Mutarrizee and the “Misbah” of El‐Feiyoomee also referred to a Classical Arab’s tradition: اَنھِرِاَلدَّمَ بِمَاشِئتَ اِلّاَمَاکَانَ مِن سِنِّ اْؤظْفْرِ Edward William Lane translated it as “Make thou the blood to flow with what thou pleasest, except with what is made of a tooth or a talon”. Edward William Lane also quoted the following statement of “Taj-el-Aroos”: “The issuing forth of the blood from the place of slaughter is likened to the flowing of water in the river”. In this statement even “Taj-el-Aroos” clearly mentioned “ flowing blood liken flowing water in the river” which does not mean that one should take the meaning of نھر (Nahar) or انھر (Anhar) or its plural انھار (Anhar) as a “RIVER” or “RIVERS”. However, the scholars of the Quran took its meaning as the “Rivers” in all translations of the Quran, like they have made MOUNTAINS and HILLS from the Quranic word رَسِی, which is actually a “tie” or a plumbing tool to join something.
“Sihah” and “Taj-el-Aroos” further said نھر (Nahar) is a channel but from the authority of the word اَلنَّھَارْ (annaharu), i.e. “the day” other lexicons including “The Kamoos” said that نھر (Nahar) is a “day time”, “enter day light” or “become day time”. “Misbah” of El‐Feiyoomee is also agreed that نھر (nahar) is a “day light” with the reference to اَلنَّھَارْ (annaharu), i.e. “the day”. Although, “Taj-el-Aroos” and its inspired Edward William Lane’s lexicon diverted the meaning of نھر (nahar) towards the “river” but the “Asas” of Ez‐Zamakhsheree, the “Kamoos”, the “Sihah” and Lane’s lexicon itself quoted the following examples from Arabic language:
رَجْلْ نَھَر (rajalun nahar), which they translated as “A man of day time”.
صَاحِبّ نَھَارِ (sahibu nahar), which they translated as “Who makes inroads or incursions into the territories of enemies therein or who works therein”
With reference to the “Asas” of Ez‐Zamakhsheree, Edward William Lane quoted the following poetry from the Classical Arabic literature in which the same word نھر (nahar) is seen and translated by them as “day time”
لَستَ بِلَیلِی ولٰکِنِّی نَھر-I am not one of the night time but I am one of the day time
لَاادلِجْ اللَّیلَ وَلٰکِن اَبتَکِر۔I am not journey in the night, but I go forth early in the morning
Ibn‐Barree, author of the “Annotations on the Sihàh,” with El‐Bustee said that the above verse of the Classical Arabic literature is correctly related with the “day time” and not as the meaning of نھر (nahar) given in the “Sihah”. Ibn‐Barree also referred to “Seebaweyh”, who said نھر (nahar) is a “day light” and نَھَاری (nhari), the food which is eaten in the early morning, is also derived from the same root word نھر (nhr) and also the نَھَار (Nahar) as “day” or “day time” that is already mentioned as the antonym of لَیل (lail), i.e. “night” in “Sihah” and “Taj-el-Aroos”. The “Mughrib” of El‐Mutarrizee also said the word نَھَار (nahaar) is a “broad day light from sun rise to sun set”. The “Misbah” of El‐Feiyoomee and the “Kamoos” added the same as Ibn‐Barree and “Mughrib” said in the above lines. “Taj-el-Aroos” objects and gives an explanation that “the meaning of نَھَر (nahar) as “day light” or “broad day light” is the signification in the vulgar conversational language but the “Misbah” of El‐Feiyoomee explains that in the Classical Arabic language it signifies the time from the rising of dawn to sunset. The “Kamoos” added that “this is the light between the rising of the dawn and sunset. Edward William Lane explains it with the reference of “Misbah” of El‐Feiyoomee that “in the traditions, it is the whiteness of the نھار (nhaar) and blackness of the لیل (lail); and there is nothing intervening between the لیل (lail) and the نھار (nhar) but sometimes the Arabs amplified , and applied نھار (nhaar) to the time from the clear shining of the dawn to the setting of the sun” Lane further quoted the following phrases from the Classical Arabic language with reference to “Misbah” of El‐Feiyoomee:صْمّْ نَھَاراَ (summu nahara) “Fast thou the a day”. عَمَلْ نَھَارا(amalo nahara) “Work thou a day”. The “Misbah” of El‐Feiyoomee further explained that it may be used in its proper classical sense when prefixed to یوم (yaom) because نھار (nhaar) is a name that is applied to every یوم (day) and لؒیلْ (lail) to every لَیلَۃ (Lailah), i.e. night but the sign of نھار(nhar) is یوم (youm). Furthermore, to clarify the actual meaning of نَھَر (Nahar) “Ibn-Keysaa” cites the following example from the Classical Arabic literature mentioned in the Lane’s Lexicon:
لَولَا اَلثّْرِیدَانِ لَمْتنَابِالضْمْر۔ ثَرِیدْ لَیلِ وَثَرِیدْ بِالنَھر۔
Were it not for the two “threeds” (or the messes of crumbled bread moistened with broth) – We had died of leanness; the “threed” of night and “threed” in the day times.
In the above lines we have carefully searched the meaning of the word نھر (nhr) and its plural انھار (anhaar) throughout the lexicons that are considered authentic, in which they have mentioned the actual meaning and the usage of this word in the Arabic language. We have also seen many examples of the Classical Arabic literature in which the Quran was revealed but again after giving their opinion all the old and modern lexicons left it to the readers to use their sense in deriving the true meaning of this word and it is entirely up to the readers or the scholars which meaning of نَھَر (nahar) they take. However, wisdom demands us to use sense instead of taking the meaning of the words of the Quran randomly from the large list of the meaning given in the lexicons and dictionaries. We have found two common meanings of the word نھر (Nahar) and its plural انھار (anhaar) in the above research in the authentic Arabic lexicons, early scholar’s views, Classical Arabic literature and Arabic poetry:
- “Day Light”.
- “Channel” as a noun and “digging a channel to flow” as a verb.
Although, we have found the above meanings of the words نھر (Nahar) and انھار (anhaar) to be common in our study, we still do not know whether the above meanings are correct and where will the “Daylight” fit in the translation of the Quran and where do we use the “Channel” or its verb “digging”? This is a huge drawback in all dictionaries and lexicons which makes people confused. There should be a ‘one word’ meaning that fits in all verses of the Quran and where the Quran itself changes the derivative of any of its word then that ideal ‘one word’ should be able to correctly interpret the word of the Quran by its derivatives. The whole purpose of this hard work is to translate the Quran accurately by taking the accurate meaning of the words of God and understanding His message in its true sense. Therefore, to find the exact “one word” that portrays the true meaning of the words نھر (Nahar) and انھار (anhaar) we will have to use further scientific approach. I personally dislike using “best fit line” in my scientific observations and I am always keen to achieve 100% accuracy, which cannot be attained by blindly drawing a sloppy “best fit line” on inaccurate points. Also the rotten formula of “best fit line” is out of the question when it comes to translating the Quran, i.e. the words of God. So, now we penetrate into both meanings of the word نھر (Nahar) and its plural انھار (anhaar), which we have abstracted from the above study, i.e. the “day light” and the “channel” or “digging” as a verb.
Further in depth analysis of both meanings of the words نھر (Nahar) or انھار (anhaar) i.e. the “day light” and the “channel or trench” gave us an advance common factor and correlation between them, which is the “escape” that is common in the channel, trench, belly, den and flow, i.e. “exit / way out / get out/ get away/ go away/move out/ come out/ breakout and leave out”. You can use more synonyms of “escape” such as salvation, deliverance and freedom etc. in the translation according to the statement. Now, come to the second word, the “day light” that we have abstracted from our research in the old Arabic literature and the lexicons. The light is significant in the “day time”, which makes difference between the “day” and its antonym, the “night” as the sun light does not escape from the sun and reach the earth in the night. Thus we have got two 100% accurate points to draw an accurate line, i.e. channels, tunnels and trenches are means of “escape” and the day light also “escapes” from the Sun in the day time and reaches the earth. So, our 100% accurate resultant line will be drawn on the least common factor “escape”, which is the 100% true meaning of the word نَھر (nahar) and its plural انھار (anhaar). Now, you can use the true meaning of the words نھر (Nahar) and its plural انھار (anhaar) and correct the interpretation of all the verses of the Quran in which the word نھر (nhr) and its derivatives are used. All the combinations of “escape” will duly fit in the correct translations of the verses of the Quran because the wide channel, belly, trench, den, making an inroad or incursion are actually the “means” to escape. Such as the phrases like “fire escape” and “water escape” a “day” or day light is actually a phenomena of sun light which occurs when it escapes from the Sun into the Earth. Therefore, a “day” is virtually formed by “light escape” and because the “light escape” occurs or starts every day in the early morning, and it remains from dawn to dusk that’s why a day is called نھار (nhaar), i.e. the duration of “light escape”, which is actually an inroad or incursion of sun light into the Earth. So, it is absolutely right that نھاری (nhari) is a food for early morning, i.e. when the sunlight starts escaping from sun into the earth. Another important point to be noted is that the “day” is not a combination of one day and one night but in fact a day is determined from sun rise to sun set only and the Quran separates them from the words اللَّيْلَ (the night) and النَّهَارِ (the day) or لَيْلًا وَنَهَارًا (71:5), i.e. day and night. We can understand the true meaning of Arabic word نھر (Nahar) from the example of the “fire escape” windows in the present time, which makes us clear of the popular Quranic phrase تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ (under the fire escape and in the light). As this phrase is frequently used in the Quran to describe the جَنَّۃ (Jannat), which is a “bright” place having a provision to escape from the problems we normally face in our present life, so Jannat is a tension free spot which provides its dwellers a free inroad, incursion or access to the means and resources of their nourishment and further development. This is all about the ideal life that the Quran describes as the Paradise. This motivational statement of the Quran was deliberately buried under the fabricated meaning of the word الْأَنْهَارُ (al anhaar) as the “rivers”. Whereas the Quran takes this word الْأَنْهَارُ (al anhaar) in the clear sense of the bright “means” (وسائل الراحة) that are offered to those successful people who are admitted to the ideal life or Paradise, on the basis of their satisfactory deeds so that they can fully enjoy their forthcoming phase of life. However, the “means” (وسائل الراحة) are seized for those whose performance could not satisfy the qualifying target set by God, which He has well explained in the other verses of the Quran as to how one can qualify and make themself eligible for the next dimension of life. The next dimension solely depends on our performance in the present life and how we hit the target. It could therefore be much lower or higher than the existing one. The lower one is called جھنم (Jahannum) “the Hell” and the higher dimension is called جَنَّۃ (Jannat), “the Paradise”. According to the Quran climbing to the higher dimension and descending to the lower dimension is the outcome ofقیامۃ (Qayamah), which is also known as the آخرۃ (a combination of the last day of the current life and the day of the next phase of life), یوم الحساب (the Time of Judgment, which is usually called the ‘Day of Judgment’ or Accountability), this is the Dooms day (the horror of the time) and the Quran also calls it یوم المبعوث (the period of one’s resurrection or rebirth according to their deeds earned in the previous life). The results or الثمرات (the fruits) of the next phase of life is either جنّۃ (The Paradise-Home sweet home-freely access to the means & resources (باغ و بہار –گل و گلزار –گلشن) or جھنم (The Hell-cry & moan-stuck-destitution-starvation-insult-griefness-distruction-no access to the means and resource less ness). The above stated phases of life either جنت (Jannat) or جھنم (Jahannum) are set up individually soon after the death of an individual and there is no waiting period mentioned in the Quran in between one’s death and his/her Time of Judgment (usually called the Day of Judgment). This is the true abstract of the statements of the Quran in terms of قَیَامَۃ (the judgment) and its outcome the جَنَّۃ (the higher dimension or a better life) or جَھَنّْم (the Hell of misery, lower dimension or worst life). However, only those who have no knowledge of the Quran fail to understand this and thus they follow the pagan’s traditional myth of قیامت (Qayamat), i.e. the non Quranic way of Judgment. Whatever is briefly explained above about the قَیَامَۃ (the judgment) and its outcome the جَنَّۃ (the Paradise) and جَھَنّْم (the Hell) this is the true message of God which was also revealed in all previous revelations of God including the Old Testament and the New Testament. Those who take it as a myth of the ancient philosophers, they must understand that the same message of God was revealed in the revelations of the time of those philosophers whom they refer to. So, it does not matter if some ancient philosophers have quoted it in their annotations in the same way as the Quran describes. God has already mentioned in the Quran that the Prophets were sent towards all nations and their preaching was the same as Prophet Muhammad’s (pbuh) because the message of God has remained the same in all times. For further details please see all 6 parts of my evidence based research articles on “Accountability”.
Coming back to the word نھر (Nahar) we study the following verse of the Quran إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَنَهَرٍ (54:54). If we use the meaning of the word نَهَرٍ (nhar) as a “RIVER”, following our scholars, the translation of this verse will be “No doubt the firm believers are in gardens and rivers”. Even if you take the translation of our scholars who replace the word الْمُتَّقِينَ (al muttaqeen) with “God fearing” then again it makes no difference in the interpretation of “living in the garden and river”. Please bear in mind that except the preposition فِي (fi) there is no other suffix in the Arabic text of this verse 54:54 and فِي (fi) is normally translated by our scholars to mean “in” or “within”. The everyday example of the preposition فِي (fi) can be seen in sentences like فی الباکستانیہ (In the Pakistan), فی البریطانیہ (In the Britain) etc. Unlike our scholars, I strongly oppose living in the “river” and I am pretty sure no one else will like living in the “river” for the sake of living in the Paradise which according to the current translation is right in the middle of the “rivers”! Is it Jannat (the Paradise) or Jahannum (the Hell) where our scholars want to send those who are successful in the Hereafter? “The righteous will be in paradises and rivers” (54:54 Translation by Free Minds). At least “Free Minds”, “Literal” and “Shakir” did not add any extra word to justify and cover the abrupt word “river”. Whereas, all other scholars have inserted their own words in the translations like “dwell among”, “midst”, “amid”, “live” and “find” etc. just to make the sentence look good when using the word “river” because they knew that they are wrong and misleading the nation by taking the wrong meaning of the word نَهَرٍ (Nahar). All Urdu translators including the so called thinkers of the Quran also inserted their own words in the interpretations of this verse. There are so many verses of the Quran in which the phrase تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَار (Tahtihal anhar) is used. If we take الْأَنْهَارُ (al anhar) as the “rivers” the translation should be “under the river or under her river”, which does not make any sense but these verses have been wrongly translated with the insertions of the words from outside the revealed text just to make the translations look good. The fifth form of the verb” تَنْهَر” (Tanhar) of the same word نھر (Nahar) is used in the following verse of the Quran وَأَمَّا السَّائِلَ فَلَا تَنْهَرْ (93:10). If the word نھر (Nahar) is a “river” then did God really say “Do not give ‘river’ to the petitioner or beggar”? Neither is تَنْهَرْ (Tanhar) a “river” nor is السَّائِلَ (as sael) a petitioner or beggar or inquirer. However, our scholars translate this verse as “Do not repulse the petitioner /beggar/ inquirer/in question/ who asks”. Of course, I will also translate this verse with full explanation in the forthcoming parts of this article.
We really need to understand the use of the word of the Quran نھر (nhr) otherwise we cannot interpret the Quran accurately.
The traditional source to translate the Quran is Arabic dictionaries and lexicons but many people are not aware of the bitter fact that the initial Arabic dictionaries were compiled on the basis of mythical traditions to prove them right from the Quran. These dictionaries and lexicons were not prepared for Arabic speaking people or for those who intend to learn the Arabic language but their whole purpose was to interpret the Quran according to the false traditional beliefs. This is the reason why all early lexicons such as “Al-Ain”, “Taj-el-Aroos”, “Sihah”, “Kamoos” and the rest have quoted examples from the traditions to derive the meaning of the Arabic words used in the Quran according to their belief. The composers of the said lexicons are seen struggling to collect references from here and there just to fit those meanings of Arabic words in the verses of the Quran that they had derived from the traditions; eventually adjusting them in the Quran. These dictionaries should have been compiled like the lexicons and dictionaries of all other languages, i.e. without using the sayings of the Prophet, without quoting the practice of any School of thought and even without referring to the verses from the scriptures. It is clear that by using all this in all Arabic dictionaries, these people obviously did not intend compile Arabic dictionaries and lexicons to actually learn the language but to mislead people who want to learn the Quran by translating it in the way they wanted to. Whilst living in Saudi Arabia I had observed the Arabic culture and their language from very close. I never found them using or referring any Arabic dictionary because they were the native speakers of Arabic language who did not require any dictionary. If this is the case then why has the Quran been translated for them if it was already revealed in their own language? I have also noted that the language in the Arabic dictionaries was different to the regular language these native speakers use in their daily life; this includes formal/informal, written and spoken Arabic. So then, how can we say that the meanings of the words of the Quran given in initial Arabic dictionaries and lexicons are correct and are the same ones in which the Prophet (pbuh) used to deliver the message of God? Also, where does the claim of the Quran stand in which God said that the Quran was made in easy to understand straight Arabic language?
Furthermore, how can we understand the Quran if the general meaning of the Arabic words are different to those which were revealed in the Quran? All the subsequent Arabic dictionaries and lexicons copied the same meanings given by the earlier dictionaries. No matter who compiles the Arabic dictionary, they always follow the precedent misleading Arabic dictionaries because they assume that the early dictionaries were right. However no one knows about the early conspiracy in which the meaning of the Quran was changed and spread through the early Arabic dictionaries. The same drawback is noted even in highly recommended Arabic dictionaries and Arabic lexicons compiled by reputable Western scholars at the present time. For instance, the famous Arabic lexicon of Edward William Lane was a ditto copy of “Taj-el-Aroos” and a mixture of all initial Arabic lexicons. Therefore, we need to find other ways to correct the translation of the Quran and compare all sources to derive the correct meanings of the words of the Quran. Unfortunately, our scholars are useless and unable to do this because they have no scholarly skill except justifying the fabricated meaning of the Quran taken from the initial Arabic lexicons compiled by the agents of anti-Quran forces in disguise of the exalted Muslim scholars.
Although we have reached the true understanding of the word انھار (Anhaar) through our in depth research and scientific approach in which we have drawn an accurate line on the correct points and got the actual result. However, to understand the Quran with its actual spirit we will also have to look the use of the same word انھار (Anhaar) in Arab countries and around the world. Interestingly, the word انھار (Anhaar) is not mentioned in all new and old Arabic lexicons and dictionaries as an independent singular word even though it has been in use as an independent singular word on its own in addition to being the plural of نھر (nahar).
Apart from boys and girls name, انھار (Anhaar) is extensively used as a verb and noun for irrigation in dry land farming, watering the plants, sanitation, dust suppression, disposal of sewage, mining, drainage, natural or artificially removal of surface and sub-surface in general and removing the surface, subsurface and washing the wounds in medicine industry.
Along with the Arab countries, in the Indian subcontinent, “the department of irrigation” is called محکمہ انھار (mehakma Anhaar). After the partition محکمہ انھار (irrigation department) of India was also divided between two countries. In Pakistan it is still known as محکمہ انھار “Mehakma Anhaar” whereas in India it is called सिंचाई (Sincai), which means irrigation, watering and sanitation. It is reported that Indian young engineers are restoring and developing the old Mughal irrigation system called انھار (Anhar) which was used during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II.
محکمہ انھار (Irrigation Department) is purely an engineering department, which is the biggest employer of civil and mechanical engineers, and technicians, who develop, plan, conserve, utilise and manage drainage , sewerage and artificial irrigation systems for agriculture purposes as irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reported in their publication “Frost protection” published by Cambridge University press United Kingdom that “Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost (Cambridge University Press publication of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISSN 1684-8241 “Frost protection: fundamentals, practice, and economics”).
In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming. Irrigation systems انھار (Anhaar) are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining.
انھار (Anhaar),i.e. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.
انھار (Anhaar),i.e Irrigation is the artificial application of watering the land or soil.
انھار (Anhaar) is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall.
Historically, انھار (irrigation) was the basis for economies of societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States.
Archaeological investigation has identified as evidence of انھار (Anhar) or irrigation where the natural rainfall was insufficient to support crops.
Dr. Donald Hill, a well-known Engineer and historian of science & technology, known for his translation of The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices of the Muslim engineer Ismail al-Jazari, has stated in his book “A History of Engineering” published by the Cambridge University press, “Perennial irrigation was practiced in the Mesopotamian plain whereby crops were regularly watered throughout the growing season by coaxing water through a matrix of small channels formed in the field” (Donald Hill: A History of Engineering, Published by Cambridge University Press)
Dr. Donald Hill also mentioned in his book “A History of Engineering” that ”Terrace irrigation is evidenced in pre-Columbian America, early Syria, India, and China”. (Hill, Donald: A History of Engineering, page 19).
There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in the twelfth dynasty (about 1800 BCE) using artificial irrigation system during the dry seasons. (“Amenemhet III”. Britannica Concise. Retrieved 2007-01-10.)
The Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a waterwheel-like device called a sakia. Irrigation began in Nubia sometime between the third and second millennium BCE. (Ancient civilizations of Africa. Books.google.com. page. 309. Retrieved 2012-06-19).
Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan and North India, including the reservoirs at Girnar in 3000 BCE and an early irrigation system from circa 2600 BCE. (J. C Rodda and Lucio Ubertini (2004). The Basis of Civilization – Water Science, page 161. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (International Association of Hydrological Sciences Press 2004, and “Ancient India Indus Valley Civilization”. Minnesota State University “e-museum”. Retrieved 2007-01-10.).
Ancient Persia (modern day Iran) as far back as the 6th millennium BCE, where barley was grown in areas where the natural rainfall was insufficient to support such a crop. (The History of Technology – Irrigation. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1994 edition).
The Qanats, developed in ancient Persia in about 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today. They are now found in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. The system comprises a network of vertical wells and gently sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and steep hills to tap groundwater. (“Qanat Irrigation Systems and Homegardens (Iran)”. Globally Important Agriculture Heritage Systems. UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2007-01-10).
The noria, a water wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by the flow of the stream (or by animals where the water source was still), was first brought into use at about this time, by Roman settlers in North Africa. By 150 BCE the pots were fitted with valves to allow smoother filling as they were forced into the water (Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 and 1989 editions).
The irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE, in the reign of King Pandukabhaya and under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world. In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build completely artificial reservoirs to store water. Due to their engineering superiority in this sector as they were often called ‘masters of irrigation’. Most of these irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, because of the advanced and precise engineering. The system was extensively restored and further extended during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu in 1153–1186 CE. (de Silva, Sena (1998). “Reservoirs of Sri Lanka and their fisheries”. UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2007-01-10.).
The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao (6th century BCE) of the spring and autumn Period and Ximen Bao (5th century BCE) of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects. In the Szechwan region belonging to the State of Qin of ancient China, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System was built in 256 BCE to irrigate an enormous area of farmland that today still supplies water. (China – history. Encyclopædia Britannica, 1994 edition).
By the 2nd century AD, during the Han Dynasty, the Chinese also used chain pumps that lifted water from lower elevation to higher elevation. (Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Pages 344-346). These were powered by manual foot pedal, hydraulic waterwheels, or rotating mechanical wheels pulled by oxen. (Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 340-343.).
In 15th century Korea, the world’s first rain gauge, uryanggye (Korean: 우량계), was invented in 1441. The inventor was Jang Yeong-sil, a Korean engineer of the Joseon Dynasty, under the active direction of the king, Sejong the Great. It was installed in irrigation tanks as part of a nationwide system to measure and collect rainfall for agricultural applications. With this instrument, planners and farmers could make better use of the information gathered in the survey. (Baek Seok-gi 백석기 (1987). Jang Yeong-sil 장영실. Woongjin Wiin Jeon-gi 웅진위인전기 11. Woongjin Publishing Co., Ltd.)
In the mid-20th century, the advent of diesel and electric motors led to systems that could pump groundwater out of major aquifers faster than drainage basins could refill them. At the global scale, 2,788,000 km² (689 million acres) of fertile land was equipped with irrigation infrastructure around the year 2000. About 68% of the area equipped for irrigation is located in Asia, 17% in the Americas, 9% in Europe, 5% in Africa and 1% in Oceania. In 2008, the scale of irrigated land increased to an estimated total of 3,245,566 km², which is nearly the size of India. (The CIA World Factbook, retrieved 2011-10-30).
To irrigate land in Punjab, Pakistan, the goal of محکمہ انھار (Irrigation Department) is to supply the entire field uniformly with water, so that each plant has the amount of water it needs, neither too much nor too little. They use surface irrigation systems in which water moves across the surface of agricultural lands, in order to wet it and infiltrate into the soil. Historically, this has been the most common method of irrigating agricultural land and is still used in most parts of the world. محکمہ انھار (Mehakma Anhaar Punjab) provides irrigation facilities by controlling water levels with dikes, usually plugged by soil. This is often seen in terraced rice fields (rice paddies), where the method is used to flood or control the level of water in each distinct field. In some cases, the water is pumped, or lifted by human or animal power to the level of the land. They also use localised irrigation system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it. محکمہ انھار (Irrigation department) is looking forward to use drip irrigation, spray or micro-sprinkler irrigation and bubbler irrigation methods. (Frenken, K. (2005). Irrigation in Africa in figures – AQUASTAT Survey – 2005. Food and Agriculture).
Subsurface Textile Irrigation (SSTI) technology is designed for irrigation soil textures from desert sands to heavy clays. A typical subsurface textile irrigation system has an impermeable base layer (usually polyethylene or polypropylene), a drip line running along that base, a layer of geotextile on top of the drip line and, finally, a narrow impermeable layer on top of the geotextile. (Provenzano, Giuseppe (2007). “Using HYDRUS-2D Simulation Model to Evaluate Wetted Soil Volume in Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems”. J. Irrig. Drain Eng. 133 (4): 342–350. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2007)133:4(342).
In modern agriculture, drip irrigation is often combined with plastic mulch, further reducing evaporation, and is also the means of delivery of fertiliser, which is called fertigation. Grapes in Petrolina, only made possible in this semi-arid area by drip irrigation in which water falls drop by drop just at the position of roots.
Sprinkler irrigation of blueberries in Plainville, New York, United States and travelling Sprinkler at Millets Farm Centre, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom use sprinkler or overhead irrigation in which water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns. These Guns are used not only for irrigation, but also for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging. Automatically moving wheeled systems known as traveling sprinklers may irrigate areas such as small farms, sports fields, parks, pastures, and cemeteries unattended. This type of system is known to most people as a “waterreel” traveling irrigation sprinkler and they are used extensively for dust suppression, irrigation, and land application of waste water.
There are so many other systems of انھار (irrigation) such as Center pivot irrigation consisted of several segments of pipe that moves in a circular pattern, a series of hanging pipes with sprinkler heads, subirrigation with high water tables or water vessels, irrigation using water condensed from humid air, group of drippers or sprinklers, mechanical, electrical and smart irrigation controllers and recycled water irrigation. Watering plants with traditional bucket or hand held sprinkler is also an example of practical application of the Quranic word انھار (Anhaar) in the context of providing the source of living.
I am sure many readers of this article will probably think why I’ve given irrelevant and unnecessary technical details along the functions of محکمہ انھار, the “Irrigation Department”. This is not actually a waste of space but for a reason to reach the true meaning of the Arabic word انھار (Anhaar).
Firstly, we have found from the above details that historically man invented a system of انھار (irrigation) to develop the means of living and to increase the resources of production on the earth. If we translate this word انھار (anhaar) as the “rivers” then the question arises as to why mankind was struggling for irrigation (انھار) since prehistorical times if rivers were already there? This makes it clear that انھار (anhaar) is a system to utilise and manage natural source. We have also found from the above technical details that the water distributors, drippers, drip lines, hydraulics machinery, hand pumps, sprinklers, spray guns, dust suppression guns, automatically moving wheels for traveling sprinklers water reels, water wheels, center pivots, moving segments of pipes ,series of hanging pipes with sprinkler heads, water vessels, group of drippers, plastic mulch, base layer of polyethylene or polypropylene, mechanical, electrical and smart irrigation controllers are joined together, combined with each other or plumbed through the piped networks in the pre-determined patterns by the engineers and technicians of the “irrigation” department محکمہ انھار to irrigate the crops and to remove the waste. So, the joining or “plumbing” work of محکمہ انھار (the irrigation department) is the true meaning of the independent word انھار (Anhaar) whereas the outcome of their “plumbing” work is the true interpretation of the word نھر (Nhar) and its plural انھار (Anhaar).
So, the Arabic word نھر (Nhar) and its plural انھار (Anhaar) is the system of development of production, resources or means of progress and cleansing, recycling or removing the waste. Whereas the other independent word انھار (Anhaar) which is not a plural of نھر (nhar) means “PLUMMET”.
“PLUMMET” is usually translated as a “plumb” or “plumb line” and PLUMMET, i.e. انھار (Anhar) is used as a noun “plummet” as well as the verb (plummets, plummeting, plummeted). As a noun “PLUMMET” is also called ‘plumb bob’; a piece of lead or some other weight attached to a line, used for determining perpendicularity, for sounding, etc.; the bob of a plumb line and taken as truly vertical, as indicated by a plumb line (Oxford Dictionary). A little mass of lead, or the like, attached to a line, and used by builders, etc., to indicate a vertical direction or (nautical) a weight on the end of a long line, used by sailors to determine the depth of water. Plumb (Adverb): In a vertical direction; perpendicularly, (informal) squarely, directly, completely. Verb: plumb (third-person singular simple present plumbs, present participle plumbing, simple past and past participle plumbed).To determine the depth, generally of a liquid; to sound. To attach to a water supply and drain. To position vertically above or below. To use a plumb bob as a measuring or aligning tool. To accurately align vertically or horizontally. To fall or sink like a plummet. To get to the bottom of something, especially to plumb the depths of something. To think about or explore in depth. To trace a road or track; to follow it to its end. (Intransitive) To work as a plumber. To seal something with lead (Thesaurus).
So, the word of the Quran انھار (anhaar) represents all of the above, from exploring, thinking, and tracing the right track (صراطِ مستقیم) to joining (plumbing) it. Tracing the track leading to the source. Joining the roadway of prosperity and development. This is the true message of God that He gave us from His selected word انھار (anhaar) in His revelation the Quran.
In the Etymology “PLUMMET” (انھار) is originated from Latin word plumba, plural of plumbum, which is known as metal led, which is listed as an element “pb” in Chemistry and used in Lead Bullet, Pencil and mainly as a solder (ٹانکہ) in tin alloy to join together metal workpieces and used as a metal sealant.
Accordingly, the Arabic word انھار (Anhaar) is used to give the meaning of “to join”, “to fix”, “to weld”, “to screw”, “to stitch”, “to seal” and “to make something secure with accurate measurements”. Now, we can translate the verses of the Quran in which this word انھار (Anhar) is used as an independent word and find the true message of God.
Arabs use the word انھار (Anhaar) exactly in the same meanings as given above but they change its meanings in the Quran like all other Muslims because of early Islam conspiracy in which it was invented that the Prophet (pbuh) took the meaning of the Arabic words of the Quran different to the general meaning used in everyday Arabic language. Although this erroneous claim is certainly against the clear statements of the Quran and its false attribution to the Prophet (pbuh) is a lie and a severe blasphemy, nobody, including the Arabs, cares about it and we blindingly follow the wrong interpretation of the Quran.
أنهار الخياطة النسائية Anhaar Women’s Tailoring Company of Tabuk in Saudi Arabia is a stitching and supplying company for women clothing & accessories, which shows the correct interpretation of the word انھار (Anhar) as a “stitching” company. Why, then, do they not take it to mean “Rivers” tailoring Company in the same way as they use its meaning in the Quran as “rivers”? Likewise, there is آلأنهار الغسيل “AL-ANHAAR LAUNDRY”. Their chain of Laundries are found in Saudi Arabia, which shows the true outcome and function of this word اَلاَنھار (Al Anhar) for cleansing (طھارت), and means of removing the dust and washing the surface, and subsurface for healthy environment but in the Quran they still take “rivers” from the same word اَلاَنھار (Al Anhar)!
أنهار الحليب النقي (Anhaar Pure Milk) and أنهار العصير (Anhar Juice) are sold in Saudi Arabia in which the word انھار (Anhar) is used as a source or means of nourishment to keep their health sound that is the actual cause of انھار (Anhar). Arabs understand this word very well and use it in their daily life but they do not want to know the accurate use of the same word in the Quran!
Anhaar Home Furniture (أنهار أثاث المنزل) Trading from Dubai and established their business in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman, Iran and Kuwait. Here the word انھار (Anhar) represents well its core meaning of joining the joineries to provide the means of comfort (وسائل الراحت) to the people with this product but again they do not bother to understand the Quran with this word انھار (Anhar) in the same sense.
انھار “Anhaar” is Scientific Journal of worldwide scientific and educational library of Kingdom of Saudia Arabia. Likewise مجلة أنهآر الادبية Anhaar Monthly is a moral and literary magazine of Saudi Arabia. The word انھار “Anhaar” in the above Scientific Journal and the Magazine is not a personal name of someone as some readers of this article may think that “Anhar Tailoring”, “Anhar Laundries”, “Anhar Milk & Juice” and “Anhar Furniture” are just the names of their owners and do not hold the same meaning as I have explained in the above lines. However, the magazine represents the nation and its culture whereas a scientific journal represents the scientific facts and new discoveries which is again a source of development of knowledge. We all know how difficult it is to name a book, magazine or journal. A solid consultation and a good brain exercise is involved in the selection of the name, which should be matching with the nature of the magazine or the journal and be able to portray them quite well in the broad literary sense. The same procedure is used in choosing the name of other organisations such as popular confectioners of Saudi Arabia are ‘Halwani Brothers’ اخوان الحلوانی (Ikhwan al Halwani). Their sweets are popular throughout the world including Saudi Arabia and the Middle East. They are the hall mark in the sweets and confectionaries for Arabic speaking people and perhaps there is no Arab family in the world who does not know about the sweets of Halwani Brothers. The readers may think that someone called Shaikh Al-Halwani would be the owner of ‘Halwani Brothers’ in Jeddah, but it’s very rare in the real word for someone with the name ‘Mr Sweetman’ to actually be the owner of a sweet company. Sweet is called حلاوہ (Halawa) in Arabic and حلوان (Halwan) or its slang حلوانی (Halwani) is the one who makes sweets; like حلوائی (Halwai) in Urdu. In reality, this has nothing to do with any Al Shaikh Al Halwani and the name ‘Halwani Brothers’ was given to this confectionary keeping in mind its product حلاوہ (Halawa), i.e. the sweet. So, it is not the case that coincidently Shaikh Al Anhar was the owner of the Anhar Tailor of Tabuk Saudi Arabia, Al Shaikh Al Anhar who stitches and supplies clothes is living up to the true meaning of his name “stitch and supply”. Then the owner of Anhar milk and juice company by chance happened to be called Mr Anhar who is also fulfilling the meaning of his name “Anhar” by developing the nourishment or the owner of Saudi launderettes also happened to be Mr Anhar who established his washing and cleaning business on the true meaning of the word “Anhar”. It is not a coincident that a person runs the same business as the meanings of his name “Anhar”. People know the true meaning of the word “Anhar” and use it in the relevant business e.g. محکمہ انھار (Mehakma Anhar)-the irrigation department), Anhar Milk & Juice, Anhar Furniture, Anhar Air Refreshners, Anhar Tailors, Anhar Laundries, Anhar Magazine and Anhar Scientifif Research Journals. Therefore the names, مجلة أنهآر الادبية Anhaar Monthly and انھار “Anhaar” are not randomly given names but in fact selected with careful thinking. Also, thinking thatأنهآر (Anhar) is known as “rivers” so the name أنهآر (Anhar) may portrays the magazines and the journals as علم کا دریا “the rivers of the knowledge” is wrong. We must understand that one can get water from a running river for free or without putting much effort but علم “the knowledge” cannot be achieved for free or without using good efforts. This is the reason why God’s very first message for the mankind was to study اِقرا “Iqra” and then He Himself elaborated the use of instrument or tool in the study عَلَّمَ بِاَلقَلَمِ “Allama Bil Qalm”. So, علم کا دریا “the rivers of the knowledge” is just a non-practical saying that does not fit here, especially, when علم “the knowledge” has been progressing each single moment of time ,no one is علم کا دریا “the rivers of the knowledge”. Therefore, the word أنهآر (Anhar) as a name of the Arabic magazine and the scientific journal is actually within its true meanings of facilitating people with the productive knowledge, developing their brains with the knowledge, clearing their confusions about obsolete theories, keeping their brains alive, refreshing their knowledge and welding them with the useful and solid information.
Apart from the above, the usage and meaning of the word انھار “Anhaar” as an independent single word in everyday Arabic language is as under:
Fall /tumble down/ overthrow / incidence /sudden fall/ fall in(انتظم,انھار سقط ، تعثر، تداعى، إنخفض بسرعة), drop/ go down( انھار نزل، انخفض-انھار ترک), come down (انھارهبط – انهارنزل), break down (انھار تحلل-انھار تدھور-انھار دمر), screw up/ crumple (انھار سحق, جعد, تغضن, تغلب, تجعد), Have a fun/toy/trifle (انھار لها), cave (جوف, استسلم انهار), sink (غرق, غوص, خفض, غور, أطاح انهار), go under (انهار تخفى, غرق, تخلف), founder (أنشأ, غرق انهار), perish (هلك, مات, فني, تعفن, أضعف انهار), slough (نزع, تخلص من ورق اللعب, انسلخ, تخلص من, نبذ انهار), slump (هبط, مشى مسترخيا انهار), crock (انهار جعله فاشلا), run down (أرهق, طلع, نزل مسرعا, أضعف, كف عن العمل انهار), irrigation and to irrigate, plummet-a “plumb” or a “plumb line”(انهار عموديا, تنهار معنوياته )
The meaning of the Arabic word انھار (Anhaar) is given as the natural “RIVERS” or “streams” in all Eastern and Western dictionaries and Lexicons but practically this word انھار (Anhaar) is never used in this sense. The fabricated meaning of this Arabic word انھار (Anhaar) given in all dictionaries, lexicons and other Arabic scholary sources are only based on the authority of the early so called Muslim scholars, whose disguised aim was to destroy the actual education of the Quran because this word انھار (Anhaar) has been used largely in the verses of the Quran which were against their pagan traditions and false beliefs. They were not able to remove these verses from the Quran but they have rampantly changed the meanings of the general Arabic words used in the Quran and invented the translation of the Quran as they pleased and attributed it to the Prophet (pbuh) so that no one could raise their voice against the wrong translations of the Quran. However, the Quranic words of Arabic language are still used in their original meaning but to understand the Quran only distorted or fabricated meaning of these words are used in the name of the translation of the Prophet (pbuh). Unfortunately, no one ponders upon this irony nor does anyone have the courage to rectify this “ill-rogue”.
Research in pre Islamic literature, Classical Arabic language, early Arabic lexicons, work of early scholars, Arab traditions, comparative verses of the Quran, modern lexicons, Arabic educational text books, proto root etymology, linguistics study, daily spoken Arabic language, and practical use of the word انھار (Anhaar) and its applications in the engineering, medicine and other industries concludes that the word انھار (Anhaar) is used as a plural of the word نھر (nhar) as well as being used as an independent singular and plural combined verb and a noun (v.& n.) انھار (Anhaar), which is similar but slightly different in its meaning to the plural of نھر (nhar). So, the one word exact meaning of نھر (nhar) and its plural انھار (Anhaar) is “ESCAPE” as a noun and “to escape” as a verb, which covers all meanings of English word “escape” that you can find in any English dictionary. However, for your quick study some meanings of the word “escape” are given underneath just to develop your better understanding. “Escape” means: “break free from confinement or control” such as ” good one’s escaped from prison”, get away, get out, run away, run off, break out, break free, get free, break loose, make a break for it, bolt, clear out, flee, fly, take flight, make off, take off, decamp, take to one’s heels, make good one’s escape, retreat, run for it, make a run for it, get free from (someone) such as “he drove along the dual carriageway to escape police”, elude, avoid, leave behind, shake off, steer clear of, give someone a wide berth, succeed in avoiding or eluding something dangerous or unpleasant such as “the driver escaped with a broken knee”, keep out of the way of, bypass, shun, steer clear of, shirk, leak out (of a gas, liquid, or heat) leak from a container such as “the CFCs have escaped into the atmosphere” or “a lethal gas escaped from a pesticide factory”, seep (out), ooze (out), exude, discharge, emanate, issue, flow (out), pour (out), gush (out), drip, drain, bleed; spurt, spout, squirt, spew, jet, bolt for freedom, running away, flight, bolting, absconding, decamping, fleeing, flit, avoidance of, evasion of, a form of temporary distraction from reality or routine such as “romantic novels should present an escape from the dreary realities of life”, diversion such as “boarding school seemed to me an escape from boredom”, a leakage of gas, liquid, or heat from a container, spill, seepage, drip, dribble, discharge, emanation, issue, flow, outflow, outpouring, gush.
English word “ESCAPE” is actually the true meaning of Arabic word نھر (Nhar) and its plural انھار (Anhaar), which is used in the Quran. All above meanings of this word “ESCAPE” are copied from Oxford, Cambridge and other reputable lexicons for your better understanding about this word “ESCAPE” which is exactly equivalent, in the meaning, to the Arabic word نھر (nhar) and its plural انھار (Anhar), in its true form and was purposely omitted from all Arabic dictionaries and lexicons to hide the actual message of the Quran.
To conclude the exact meaning of the independent word انھار (Anhar) I have presented all technical background of محکمہ انھار “Mehakma Anhar”, i.e. the Irrigation Department, which is purely an engineering establishment and works with machines, tools, materials and manpower for agricultural development and applies engineering methods to improve sanitation of human communities by providing the removal and disposal of human waste. The above stated job description and tasks of Irrigation Department itself explain the exact meaning of the Arabic word انھار (Anhar), which is still used in general Arabic language and its extensive use is seen in the Quran in the same meanings as a Divine “Instrument” or Divine “Tool” for removing the impurities of mankind and developing the resources to “escape” including providing productive means for nourishment and further development of life.
In the publication of University of California, “Weed Control” Department of Plant Science 14-02-2007. Dr Roberts of UC Davis, Medical Center, University of California and agronomist J. E. Hill, UC Davis, of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences, University of California it is stated that “Irrigation is suppressing weed growth in grain fields”. The World Bank reported ”With regards to agriculture, the World Bank targets food production and water management as an increasingly global issue that is fostering a growing debate. Physical water scarcity is where there is not enough water to meet all demands, including that needed for ecosystems to function effectively. Arid regions frequently suffer from physical water scarcity and Economic scarcity. According to the World Bank some 2.8 billion people currently live in water-scarce areas (“Reengaging in Agricultural Water Management: Challenges and Options”. The World Bank. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 2011-10-30.).
In the light of the facts mentioned in this research article on the Quranic word نھر (Nhar), plural انھار (Anhar) and independent word the انھار (Anhar) are misleadingly taken as “river” or “stream” in the current translations of the Quran. The independent word انھار (Anhar) has been practically used for “water management” with the tools and plants (T&P), which cannot be taken as a natural source of water. Had God wanted to mention the natural source of water on the Earth, He would have used “OCEAN” instead of artificial rivers, canals or drainages. Ocean is called المحیط (Al-Muheet) in the Arabic language whereas the sea and the natural rivers are called البحر (Al-Bahar) in the Quran as well as in general Arabic language. Therefore, the true meanings of the Quranic word نھر (Nhar) and its plural انھار (Anhar) is “ESCAPE”, whereas the true meaning of independent Quranic word the انھار (Anhar) is “PLUMMET” and its derivatives. The Quran itself differentiates the independent word انھار (Anhar), which is not used as a plural of the word نھر (Nhar) by using an article with the independent انھار (Anhaar) to single out this word to avoid confusion in understanding those verses in which this word is revealed. This word the انھار (Anhar) indicates prosperity (سیرابی، شادابی ، خوشحالی) as a result or the outcome of the application of irrigation-اَنھَار
If you understand my research work and agree with this, please do your best to spread it to public through your local media and forward it to your educational establishments, publishers of dictionaries, lexicons and other educational institutions. Also try to approach Google Translator and Wikipedia to add the word “ESCAPE” in the meaning of the Arabic word نھر (nhar) and its plural انھار (Anhar) and request them to rectify the deliberate mistake committed by early scholars and their blind successors.
Jazak Allah Khair